The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.
Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways. Addition polymerization describes the method where monomers are added one by one to an active site on the growing chain. Polymers are huge macromolecules composed of repeating structural units. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. The study of polymer science begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized. Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways.
- Track 1-1Polyamides and Common Polyesters
In Polymer Chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks. There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. In chemical compounds, polymerization occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. In more straightforward polymerization, alkenes, which are relatively stable due to sigma bonding between carbon atoms, form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, more complex reactions such as those that involve substitution at the carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reacting molecules polymerize. Alkanes can also be polymerized, but only with the help of strong acids.
Polymer Physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. While it focuses on the perspective of condensed matter physics, polymer physics is originally a branch of statistical physics. Polymer physics and polymer chemistry are also related with the field of polymer science, where this is considered the applicative part of polymers. Polymer Characterization includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, Thermal Properties, mechanical properties, and any additives. Molecular Characterization also includes the development and refinement of analytical methods with statistical models which help to understand phase separation and phase transition of polymers. The results achieved hereof can be eventually applied to optimize the experimental conditions during analyses. We have multiple approaches for Polymer Characterization.
When a polymer has stereochemical isomerism within the chain, its properties often depend on the stereochemical structure. Thus, the analysis of the Stereo-Chemistry of polymers is important and NMR spectroscopy has been the most valuable tool for this purpose. It is a general rule that for a polymer to crystallize, it must have highly regular polymer chains. Highly irregular polymers are almost inevitably amorphous. Polymer chains can have isomeric forms that decrease the regularity of the chains.
There are three important forms of isomerism in polymers.
·Sequence Isomerism (Head-to-Tail or Head-to-Head)
Stereochemical formulae for polymer chains are shown as Fischer projections rotated through 90o i.e. displayed horizontally rather than vertically, or as hypothetical extended zigzag chains the latter occasionally give a clearer indication of the three-dimensional arrangement.
The terminology used in the bioplastics sector is sometimes misleading. Most in the industry use the term bioplastic to mean a plastic produced from a biological source. All (bio- and petroleum-based) plastics are technically biodegradable, meaning they can be degraded by microbes under suitable conditions. However, many degrade so slowly that they are considered non-biodegradable. Some petrochemical-based plastics are considered biodegradable and may be used as an additive to improve the performance of commercial bioplastics. Non-biodegradable bioplastics are referred to as durable. The biodegradability of bioplastics depends on temperature, polymer stability, and available oxygen content. The European standard EN 13432, published by the International Organization for Standardization, defines how quickly and to what extent a plastic must be degraded under the tightly controlled and aggressive conditions (at or above 140° F (60 °C) of an industrial composting unit for it to be considered biodegradable. This standard is recognized in many countries, including all of Europe, Japan and the US. However, it applies only to industrial composting units and does not set out a standard for home composting. Most bioplastics (e.g. pH) only biodegrade quickly in industrial composting units. These materials do not biodegrade quickly in ordinary compost piles or in the soil/water. Starch-based bioplastics are an exception, and will biodegrade in normal composting conditions.
Advanced polymeric Biomaterials continue to serve as a cornerstone of new medical technologies and therapies. Most of these materials, both natural and synthetic, interact with biological matter without direct electronic communication. However, biological systems have evolved to synthesize and employ naturally-derived materials for the generation and modulation of electrical potentials, voltage gradients, and ion flows. Bioelectric phenomena can be interpreted as potent signaling cues for intra- and inter-cellular communication. These cues can serve as a gateway to link synthetic devices with biological systems. This progress report will provide an update on advances in the application of electronically active Biomaterials for use in organic electronics and bio-interfaces. Specific focus will be granted to the use of natural and synthetic biological materials as integral components in technologies such as thin film electronics, in vitro cell culture models, and implantable medical devices. Future perspectives and emerging challenges will also be highlighted.
Polymer Engineering is generally an engineering field that designs, analyses, and/or modifies polymer materials. Polymer engineering covers aspects of the petrochemical industry, polymerization, structure and characterization of polymers, properties of polymers, compounding and processing of polymers and description of major polymers, structure property relations and applications.
The early developments in Polymer Technology occurred without any real knowledge of the molecular theory of polymers. The idea that the Structure of Molecules in Nature might give an understanding of plastics was put forward by Emil Fischer, who in 1901 discovered that natural polymers were built up of linked chains of molecules. It was not until 1922 that the chemist Herman Staudinger proposed that not only were these chains far longer than first thought, but they were composed of giant molecules containing more than a thousand atoms. He christened them ‘macromolecules’, but his theory was not proved until 1935 when the first plastic was created with a predictable form. This was the first synthetic fiber, nylon.
Polymer Catalysis has become an independent and thriving branch of chemistry. Extensive development of this field is attributed to success achieved in synthesis and investigation of so-called functional polymers as well as to success attained in homogeneous, metal complex catalysis. The fruitful cooperation of these two directions, namely the fixation of homogeneous catalysts or transition metal compounds on organic polymers, has led to the novel idea of heterogenization of homogeneous metal complex catalysts. Catalysis by polymers is the new intensively developing field of science
Biopolymers are available as coatings for paper rather than the more common petrochemical coatings. Bioplastics are used for disposable items, such as packaging, crockery, cutlery, pots, bowls, and straws. They are also often used for bags, trays, fruit and vegetable containers and blister foils, egg cartons, meat packaging, vegetables, and bottling for soft drinks and dairy products. These plastics are also used in non-disposable applications including mobile phone casings, carpet fibers, insulation car interiors, fuel lines, and plastic piping. New electroactive bioplastics are being developed that can be used to carry electric current. In these areas, the goal is not biodegradability, but to create items from sustainable resources. Medical implants made of PLA (polylactic acid), which dissolve in the body, can save patients a second operation. Compostable mulch films can also be produced from starch polymers and used in agriculture. These films do not have to be collected after use on farm fields.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called Petro-based polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of bio based polymers (bioplastics). Some, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bioplastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. Bioplastics can be composed of starches, cellulose, biopolymers, and a variety of other materials
Polymeric Nanoparticles are predominantly prepared by wet synthetic routes. Several industrial processes will be described. Emphasis will be placed on the type of polymers and morphology structures that can be synthesized using each process. Controlled radical polymerization will be explored for their ability to provide structural control of polymer chains. The extraordinarily large surface area on the nanoparticles presents diverse opportunities to place functional groups on the surface. Particles can be created that can expand/contract with changes in pH or interact with anti-bodies in special ways to provide rapid ex-vivo medical diagnostic tests. Important extensions have been made in combining inorganic materials with polymers and in combining different classes of polymers together in nanoparticle form.
The foremost challenges in the upcoming decades will be the increase in population, the concentration of people in expansive urban centers, and globalization, and the expected change of climate. Hence, the main concerns for humans in the future will be energy & resources, food, health, mobility & infrastructure and communication. There is no doubt that polymers will play a key role in finding successful ways in handling these challenges. Polymers will be the material of the new millennium and the production of polymeric parts i.e. green, sustainable, energy-efficient, high quality, low-priced, etc. will assure the accessibility of the finest solutions round the globe. Synthetic polymers have since a long time played a relatively important role in present-day medicinal practice. Many devices in medicine and even some artificial organs are constructed with success from synthetic polymers. It is possible that synthetic polymers may play an important role in future pharmacy, too. Polymer science can be applied to save energy and improve renewable energy technologies.
The marketing mix is an important part of the marketing of polymers and consists of the marketing 'tools' you are going to use. But marketing strategy is more than the marketing of mixed polymers and plastics. The marketing strategy sets your marketing goals, defines your target markets and describes how you will go about positioning the business to achieve advantage over your competitors. The marketing mix, which follows from your marketing strategy, is how you achieve that 'unique selling proposition' and deliver benefits to your customers. When you have developed your marketing strategy, it is usually written down in a marketing plan. The plan usually goes further than the strategy, including detail such as budgets. You need to have a marketing strategy before you can write a marketing plan. Your marketing strategy may serve you well for several years but the details, such as budgets for marketing activities, of the marketing plan may need to be updated every year.